5 quick tips to get better engagement on your site

Looking and interacting with web information

5 people in a usability test can identify 85% of a web site’s problems. Usability tests are worth investing time in because your web site’s usability directly affects the engagement. Here are 3 tips and tricks to increase online engagement:

  1. Test your site’s layout, categorisation and terminology regularly. Think of these components as being plants in your garden. They need to be pruned and cultivated to flourish. Any web functionality tests need to be constantly refined and refreshed.
  2. We skim webpages for cognitive cues, in fact, within 10 seconds we permanently know if a web site is useful or not. Aid skimming through your content’s headers, nicely laid out paragraphs, and by using the usability test data (above) to see if your information architecture (web arrangement of material, labels and presentation) needs to change.
  3. Offer social media icons to encourage content sharing. But think about where you place these on your site. We read in an F shape or golden triangle so placing icons on the top of left-hand side is a good idea. You can also use floating social media icons.
  4. Embrace unique content but also incorporate learning within your content to further increase engagement. If someone learns something new on your site they are more likely to recommend it to another person. Write clearly. Helping a user to learn something also makes them reflect on your site’s content and this can also drive returning visitors.
  5. Research engaging topics, such as, new applications, new technology developments or challenges of social networks, for instance.
Photo of a URL being clicked

URL with cursor

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  • Norman, D.A. and Nielsen, J. (2010) Gestural Interfaces: A Step Backward In Usability. Interactions. September – October 2010

Ranking. Mobile search. Point of Interest (POI)

Point of interests on mobile search

Whenever we search on mobile devices our behaviour changes. Our search sessions, for example, are much shorter and more conversational than desktop searches. Search engines need to find out what the user intent is by calculating explicit and implicit keywords. In a nutshell, if we do not clearly state a location, for instance, [restaurant] then this is an implicit query and search engines will focus more on the closest POI rather than ranking web sites or locations further away.

Mobile web search screenshot

Search engines calculate explicit and implicit intent then rank results

Researchers, two of which are from Microsoft, found that searchers often click on POI up to 3,000 meters away. This indicates that that we are not always interested in the nearest POI. Although search engines can calculate to some degree of accuracy explicit and implicit keywords they still do not know how to calculate user interest and to do so will come up with more privacy issues, see location itself below.

For local search to be more precise web search engines would have to use GPS, however, due to privacy issues this is not always possible. In fact the EU might target locational data after Google’s right to be forgotten dies down.

Local search engines, thus affecting the SEO industry, do not really account for popularity within points of interest. Yes, reviews help. But this is still not representative and can be problematic to take into account the oldest, traditional pizza house in Rome, for example.

POI and SEO: 5 top tips

  1. Build lots of citations in order to boost local SEO signals
  2. Make use of social media to utilise locational data. Social media explicitly ask for location-based data, for example, Twitter. Your network can be analysed in geographically and therefore it is possible to gain a list of potential local sources who may link out to you which can also strengthen locational data signals. You can further improve this be creating pearl growth by finding similar local follower and pushing them content they are likely to link out to — the local SEO link. Although we do not know how much weight this factor has on localised rankings
  3. Use schema to enhance signals and increase click-through rates
  4. Get positive reviews. More reviews. And, eventually, even more reviews. But be careful. If you get a sudden surge of reviews it can trigger a negative, penalty like, signal
  5. For any local SEO campaign research geographic keywords and get in tune with local dialect

It is clear local SEO is the future of search least not forgetting its popularity. In fact 78% of local mobile searches result in offline purchases. Go, rank, locally.

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Pay Per Click advertising via keywords, UK and EU law

Bidding legally on competitors’ keywords on PPC

Pay per click advertising effectively reaps instant rankings and helps enterprises take up more of the SERP. Together this increases brand awareness through keywords alone. SEO, however, still gets more clicks compared to PPC.

Legally keywords fall under trade mark law as they provide huge economic benefits. In fact, collectively, intellectual property is the biggest investment any company has because your brand can, in itself, sell your product(s) and/or service(s).

A photo of a Google themed hat saying Noogle


Digital trade marks

The list of digital assets is extensive. Web pages as a single digital asset includes various elements, for example, store location pages, category pages, product pages, reviews, holiday promotions, sitemaps and semantic make up. Simply by knowing your digital presence you should also know a list of your digital assets which you can monitor and therefore protect.

Trade mark infringment can occur on organic search and pay per click advertising. Web search keywords, more specifically branded terms, are your digital trade mark and these can be infringed, just like traditional trade marks, such as, a logo, for instance, if best practices are ignored.

In the early days of SEO it was possible to include keywords in the keyword HTML tag to improve your rankings, in fact, Bing and Yahoo still place a very small weight on such keywords, however, Google now ignores this tag and any weight placed by Bing and Yahoo is only going to come into play if another web site has the exact same on- and off-page ranking factors. Legally you are not allowed to include your competitors keywords to rank for their brand name in organic results because it is misleading to the searcher.

Pay Per Click advertising systems must be clearly labelled as “ads” and it is legal in the UK and EU to bid for your competitors keywords because PPC’s system distinguishes their results as paid adverts. For this reason PPC systems will always have to distinguish ads, in the form of labels or typography, for example, however this area is growing in case law, as outlined in 3 legal, summarative, case studies below:

European Pay Per Click advertising legal case study
In Germany a court ruling, May 2014, concluded that trade marks with reputation should be more difficult to bid for by using PPC. The German court heard that Eis.de had dramitically reduced the prices of a rival brand, Beate Uthse, and advertised this through PPC. The Frankfurt court ruled that Beate Uthse’s trade mark may be percieved negatively to the average searcher and therefore proving reputational damage is key to taking such a PPC case to courts.
Amazon and an EU wide ban
Amazon was banned throughout Europe from infringing a UK cosmetic company, Lush, after bidding for Lushes’ products and stating they were on sale when in fact they were not on sale after redirecting search engine users to Amazon’s internal search engine and in Google’s sponsored search results. After an agreement could not be reached between Amazon and Lush the case went back to the High Court and a EU wide injunction was issued to overcome Amazon’s technical difficult counter-claim.
UK PPC competitor keyword bidding
A 2013 legal dispute between Marks and Spencers vs Interflora came to a firm conclusion under British law: Bidding for competitors’ PPC keywords is legal so long as the trade mark is not underminded by the PPC advert through searcher confusion over who is selling the item, in this case flowers.

Pay Per Click advertising, UK, EU law, and competitor keyword bidding

  1. Never mislead search engine users, for example, if you state on a PPC ad that product-a has 50% discount then that webpage must display productA as being half price on the referral web site.
  2. Avoid any confusion
  3. Put yourself in the situation. How would you feel? Is the PPC ad clear?

Bidding on competitors keyword using PPC is growing in case law and, therefore, must be continually monitored to find out the latest legal grounding.

Do you bid using PPC on competitors keywords? Tweet Gerald.

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What is a trade mark? How to register for one?

Trade mark, intellectual property

A trade mark, otherwise spelt trademark or abbreviated TM, is a graphical sign or mark which uniquely identifies one company from another. Trade marks remain popular, in fact, in 2012 there were 545,791 trade mark applications from residences across Europe (including 2,704 in Ireland and 36,596 in the United Kingdom) [1]. A consumer may build a connection, legally defined as under-taking, with a positive or negative experience: Trade marks allow economic growth because consumers can trust and purchase from a particular brand.

Photo of a trademark symbol

Trademark symbol

Trade mark application

IPO have self-explanatory steps to help enterprises search and apply for patents, visit their website to complete an application.

Classes categorise products and services and must be stated on an application. The classes you register your trade mark in are the only classes you can use your trade mark for. Research classes on IPO’s website (e.g. classes 9, 11, 34 and 42).

Avoiding a Europe-wide community trade mark (CTM)

Bainbridge, a Professor of Intellectual Property law, argues that a CTM looks interesting to a trader because one registration gives validly throughout each Member State within Europe. However, in reality an application will be refused if it conflicts against national registers. In other words, if an enterprise in Ireland has a trade mark for company-a which is also in the same class of goods or services, a CTM will be refused: A CTM, potentially, could be a waste of time and money.

You should consider applying for an application with the UK IPO and the Madrid Protocol, rather than a community trade mark.

How to register a trade mark in the UK?

You can complete and send an application to the national or regional trade mark office. This application will contain the sign or mark in full detail (including colour, if appropriate), in addition to, other features such as, illuminations, for example.

Trade mark rights
• Persons cannot take Comphylo’s sign and fix it to goods and/or packaging
• Competitors cannot use Comphylo trade mark for marketing purposes
• Persons cannot use a similar (or identical) sign to Comphylo’s
Trade Mark exclusions
• It only contains the shape of peripheral devices
• Using a person’s own name and address
• Use to indicate the intended purpose of a product or service, for example, spare parts
• Use of an unregistered mark which is protected by the law of passing off

Law of Passing Off

Passing off is a common law (which is based on previous legal cases) that protects the goodwill of enterprises, along with, protecting the public from being deceived. The law of passing off is mainly used whenever one enterprise has no registered trade mark.


Misrepresentation stops the public from being deceived (e.g. competitor-x using Comphylo’s logo or name to sell their software, including slogans and visual images).

Malicious Falsehood

Similar to defamation and closely related to passing off, malicious falsehood, otherwise known as trade libel, occurs whenever a person publishes information which could destroy another enterprise, or their good(s) or service(s).

Trade marks are very powerful pieces of intellectual property. My next blog post will analyse trade mark infringement in terms of pay-per-click (PPC) systems.

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  1. Bainbridge, D., I. (1990) Introduction to Information Technology Law. 6th edition. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.
  2. Johnson, H. (1995) ‘Trade Marks: The New Law’, Managerial Law, 37(4/5) pp. 1 – 59

Stop. Google is not a semantic search engine

Is Google a semantic search engine?

A semantic search engine understands each query and presents relevant documents based on this understanding. Google however is not a semantic search engine but it does display elements of a semantic search engine:

  1. “Searches related to” is officially known as semantic similarity and it is designed to guide a searcher towards their search goal
  2. Google AdWords offers a keyword generation which is also closely related to semantic similarity
  3. Computing engineers also analysed Google’s search engine in 2011 and found that several results, or snippets, provide incorrect or non-useful semantic information — including queries who ranked in the top results. Google is therefore not a semantic search engine
Popular semantic search is a good bit away

Semantic technology is not ‘new’. Copyright granted by DullHunk.

Examples of semantic search engines

Sensebot and Sindice are examples of semantic search engines. Here understanding and relationships of keywords are key to producing results. That is not to say that other search engines do not understand queries but they rely on other technologies to do so rather than take a mathematical approach and rank queries based on meaning as supposed to, for example, saving and placing weight on keywords that appear in the title and header (term location in information retrieval). Search engines have just started to get smarter, thus a little semantic, with search, for instance, Google’s Knowledge Graph. But on the whole Google and other search engines are not semantic search engines; they just display elements of semantic search rather than be a complete and whole semantic search engine.

It is impossible to ask [photos of a flower with 5 petals and a yellow vase in the background] so Google is not a semantic search engine because it does not, unlike humans, understand a string of keywords to display relevant results.

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  • Xu, Z. Luo, X. Yu, J. and Xu, W. (2011) Measuring semantic similarity between words by removing noise and redundancy in web snippets. Concurrency and computation: Practice and experience. 23(2011) pp. 2496–2510

SEOs. Stop ranking, think search behaviour

SEO isn’t just about ranking

What we click depends upon the search engine because interfaces, algorithms, precision and recall differ from search engine to search engine. Why do we click on SERPs?

Most of us are satisfied search engine users because we feel, for example, in control and are able to find relevant information. Search evokes emotions which is why there are 8.63 billion web searches carried out on Google daily, making search a repetitive task: There are more web searches carried out everyday than their are people on the planet. Repeating the same search, however, leads to even more personalised results but search engines’ algorithms also include diversity to ensure the best user experience. We click on SERPs because search is, for the most part, an enjoyable task.

Photo of retro Google UX

Classic Google user interface

Our behaviour changes:

  1. if the quality of results is affected;
  2. because of SERP presentation. This explains why Google, for example, updates their PPC presentation because by changing the interface we interact differently with the same element. In the case of Adwords more clicks are likely to have occurred earning Google more money;
  3. in accordance with the type of search task. In fact long snippets lead to better search performance for informational tasks but reduce performance for navigational tasks;
  4. due to individual differences.

Don’t make me click

The choice of keywords in the URL, description and title tag affect what we click because we subconsciously make a relevance judgement. Search engines highlight our keywords and place them in bold to help us to make a quick relevancy judgement. For SEO it is vital your important keywords are placed in the right places. Term location therefore affects click-through rates (CTRs) and as impressions increase so too will clicks if you create great meta data.

Whilst user effort includes CTRs and user experience researchers have broken user effort down more specifically and discovered that a search quality includes the following metrics: number of clicks; number of queries; number of query reformulations; and the rank and position of results. SEO cannot directly impact the number of queries and the number of query reformulations, however, we can increase the number of clicks, rank and position of results.

A case study increasing CTRs.
If you cannot change your rankings quickly then review CTRs to gain more clicks, for example, by including the keyword [every]. Would you click on [every men's red jumpers] or [men's red jumpers]? The former sounds far more interesting, let’s click on that instead.

Organic rankings do not, yet, include social media within their algorithms. You should include social within your SEO campaign today. Not only will your total clicks improve but you can influence keyword awareness through social media and therefore increase impressions for keywords. This is particularly useful if you are trying to rank an unusual or new keyword.

Do you think SEO is all about ranking or click-through rates? Tweet Gerald.

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  1. Al-Maskari, A. and Sanderson, M. (2009) A Review of Factors Influencing User Satisfaction in Information Retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(5) pp. 859–868

3 ways search engines can track your behaviour

Search engines are keyword-led utility tools used to locate information on the web. Most search engines commonly record your behaviour. Some behaviours are commonly known, for example your search history, and some are less known, for instance, tagging your search engine queries. Either way most search engines record user actions to predict user intent within search sessions and, therefore, calculating what information you are going to search for in the near future.

A photo of a mouse cursor

Questionable click? No copyright permission required.

3 levels of search engine user tracking

  1. User actions can be tracked by search engines, for example, query logs, clicks and scoring. By analysing keywords with each of these user actions, search engines can further add value to this data. Query logs can also include subject categories, time spent on individual webpages and calculating what a searcher’s most favourite category is. This is likely to be constructed on a 3D cube with 3 dimensions: length, breath, and depth.
  2. Hidden user actions are tracked in a technical manner, such as, using AJAX or javascript. Hidden search engine actions include mouse movements or, for example, scrolling. Such tracking requires third party techniques because search engine instruments cannot record such data in their own right.
  3. Popular search engines now carry out regular user testing whereby Google, Bing and Yahoo, for example, get participants to sit in front of their search engine and complete eye tracking (the third way search engines track behaviour). These observed actions are much more sophisticated and are often incorporated with wider IT diciplines, such as, usability testing, for instance.

Tracking your behaviour, your rights

There is no international law that covers search engine tracking, however, the laws in your home country will help to protect you against legal concerns, for instance, privacy, data protection and breach of confidence. The biggest issue with search engine tracking is that we do not, as of yet, know precisely what search engines use to track our behaviour. In their response search engines are likely to argue that their tracking helps to increase personalisation and by withholding such methods they are giving away less information to their competitors. Although from a search perspective personalisation is positive, since relevancy of results is increased, public awareness is likely to challenge such behaviour tactics which is why search engines should consider opening up to transparency more and more as time progresses.

What are your opinions? Were you aware of the 3 layers of search engine tracking? Tweet Gerald.

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